The "rules" mentioned here refer to "the order that can be clearly described and adjusted", and are rules in the broad sense. Common rules include (but are not limited to):
- Explicit rules, such as laws, rules and regulations of organizations;
- Hardware design and software programs in IT systems;
- Rules in people's minds, such as social conventions, consensus, moral rules, trust, and so on.
There are many people who agree with a simple value system of life: "Pursuing freedom without harming people." And "do not harm people" is one of the most important rules of maintaining social order, but as society becomes more and more complex, we should also follow to various social rules mentioned before.
From the laws, rules and regulations of organizations, to rules in IT systems, to rules in people's minds, these rules are increasingly dynamic. The more dynamic the rules are, the more adaptable they are to the social environment, the more conducive they are to people's freedom, but the more easily they lead to chaos and mistakes. The characteristics of the less dynamic rules are the opposite. Therefore, in order to establish a harmonious society, the rules of every dynamic level are necessary.
For human society or organization, the implementation of hard rules can bring order, but too many hard rules also limit freedom, which is not conducive to generating dynamic order. For example, authoritarian countries are typical examples.
In general, the more complex the system is, the more rules it needs, and the higher its operating costs. The complexity of the system determines that the operating costs can only be optimized, but cannot be completely avoided. For example, multiracial and multi-religious countries like the United States need to maintain social order through a complicated legal system, so that people can trust each other and cooperate effectively. However, excessively complicated laws also impose a heavy burden on social operation. A large number of social resources are consumed in the judicial system, which increases the legal costs of various social activities.
So how should we optimize human society?
The more dynamic the social rules are, the higher the social complexity can be achieved, and the greater the potential of generating dynamic order. The rules in people's minds such as moral rules and trust are more dynamic than external rules, and are more adaptable to social changes. If people can form good morality and trust, social activities will be less involved in complicated laws and regulations, and society can operate more harmoniously and efficiently.
It is difficult to form good morality and trust in society. The IT systems have a certain degree of dynamics, are more stable and reliable than humans, and can be established steadily, so they are good tools to form social order. When we try to establish a certain social order, it is usually easier to establish IT system than to nurture morality and trust. So IT systems will become more and more important, and be applied more and more widely in human society. For a society, the ability to establish and apply IT systems is as important as social moral standards; for individuals, it is necessary to understand and learn basic programming knowledge.
If social rules are too dynamic, they may cause disorder and mistakes, and basic social order must be maintained, so the laws and regulations are still indispensable. And the speed of change in human society is accelerating, so we should revise the laws in time. This is equivalent to increasing the dynamics of the legal system on the time scale, so as to adapt to social development.
The running of human society is based on some basic rules, such as universal morals, social conventions and consensus, and so on.
The basic order of society is derived from the basic rules, so basic rules is very important. Then, how should we optimize basic social rules? There are a few principles below:
- With the ever-increasing level of social dynamic order, the level of basic social rules also needs to be increased accordingly. An example is the promotion of social welfare.
- Simple core rules can form high-level dynamic order. Adding unnecessary basic rules in a complex system will not only undermine the free development of the system, they may even conflict with the existing rules, and destruct the existing dynamic order in the system. So the basic rules of human society should be kept simple. For example, the government should avoid over-regulation of economic, cultural and other fields. (Simple)
- For outdated and inappropriate basic rules, we should adjust them in time, and lead society to form new consensus.
The following two problems, Security and Peace and Secularization, also reflect these principles.
We should pursue high-level basic rules, and we also should keep basic rules simple, is this contradictory? Think of the whole society as a big tree. The basic order is like trunks and branches, trunks and branches should be high enough and broad enough that leaves and fruits (high-level dynamic order things) can thrive. However, the trunks and branches must be simple, and should not interfere with the growth of leaves and fruits. Stunted branches should be pruned in time, otherwise they will interfere with other normal parts, and waste resources.
Why is the world becoming more and more secure? Why do civilized societies despise violence? The reason is that the level of basic social order has increased. The security of individuals, groups or organizations is the basis for maintaining and developing their dynamic order. Therefore, security and peace have become part of the basic rules of the world.
However, this does not mean that there should be no competition and conflicts in the world. Social development needs competition, and competition inevitably leads to conflicts. We need to raise competition and conflicts to a higher level, so as to avoid undermining the basic order. For example, individuals should compete for wisdom, ability, and so on; the competition among countries should be in the fields of culture, science and technology, economy, and so on.
On the other hand, this does not mean that everyone will abide by these basic rules. Some people will still undermine our security and peace for their own interests, so we still need to work hard to maintain these basic rules.
In some countries, the content of religion or ideology also serves as social rules, and often contains some complex and specific rules. Should these rules be used as basic rules?
Religions and ideologies are high-level dynamic order, their rules are top-down, and usually not suitable as basic rules. Good soical basic rules are bottom-up, and emerged spontaneously from the process of human social development. If the content of religion and ideology is taken as the basic social rules, the freedom of social activities will be seriously affected, and it will be difficult for society to develop to a higher level, and even dynamic order collapse may occur. Moreover, religions and ideologies often tend to self-reinforcing, which lead to the lock-up of the basic rules, and then make social development into trouble.
To solve this problem, we need to keep the religion or ideology at high level of dynamic order. That is to say, these countries do not have to completely remove the influence of religion or ideology, as long as the religion or ideology is regarded as pure belief, make it noble and sanctified, and secularize social activities, then it can largely avoid the restrictions of religion or ideology on social development. From past historical experience, many countries have indeed achieved better development after secularization.
When we judge the legitimacy of such governments, we should focus on whether they promote social development, whether they have the will to secularize, and whether they promote secularization, rather than what religion or ideology they advocate.
The minimalist value system like Dorderism has less restrictions on social activities. In order to avoid increasing hard and fast basic rules, Dorderism does not go deep into the specific details of social activities.
Trust can be seen as rules in people's minds, which is mainly related to social collaboration.
The individual intelligence and the group intelligence of small group are limited. The most complex things in our society come from efficient and extensive social collaboration, which requires people to have enough trust between each other. It can be said that only groups or societies that form good trust relationships can generate dynamic order efficiently.
Therefore, we should try to cultivate trust in society as much as possible. Everyone should treat people honestly, try not to lie, not to cheat, and not to violate contracts.
Most social activities in modern human society involve time. Time order is an important part of the dynamic order of the whole society, and every one should be punctual.
We should try to follow the social rules, from lining up in order, to complying with laws. However, we must understand that the rules themselves are not sacred. Observing the rules is for maintaining social order, and thus create dynamic order better. Therefore, in some cases we need to break the rules.
Sometimes we must violate social rules to maintain dynamic order, such as violating traffic rules to rescue patients who is in critical condition.
Some social rules are themselves wrong, such as slavery, prohibiting citizens from criticizing the government, and so on. However, there must be obvious reasons and evidences that these rules are bad for the whole society, then we can consider breaking these rules, and we should not use this as an excuse to sabotage social rules.
Sometimes people may not obey social rules out of kindness, but because of the complexity of human society, such behaviors do not guarantee good results, and are usually unnecessary. For example, some teachers may let students with poor exam results pass the exam. Although this is a well-intentioned behavior, it may lead students to lose their study motivation, and cause students face greater setbacks in the future. It is better to reduce the difficulty of the exam, but strictly evaluate the grades according to the rules.