The development of human society is the sum of the emergence and evolution of innumerable things. The essential incalculable and unpredictable characteristics of the emergence and evolution determine that human society always needs a certain degree of competition, in order to filter out better things. The higher the level of things, the more they need to undergo full development and competition, so that they can truly reflect their advantages and disadvantages. For example, in a fair society, every healthy baby may grow into an excellent person, but we can't predict their future achievements.
When we understand the incalculable and unpredictable characteristics of human social development, we can understand that the core problem of traditional utopian societies is not whether we can achieve them (in the future we have the ability to achieve them), but that they are not the optimal form of society at all. Although the traditional communism did not explicitly oppose competition, but in the practical understanding of communism, competition is severely weakened, so when people try to realize it, it is very easy to go to mistakes such as absolute egalitarianism and planned economy.
Therefore, we should not seek to eliminate competition, but rather seek to limit competition to higher levels, such as the competition of thoughts, culture, and technology.
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In large societies, only groups may have competitive advantage. And competitions that mainly affect society are group competitions, not individual competitions. The competitive advantage of a group depends largely on the level of its internal collaboration. So within a group, there are usually more collaborations and less competitions.
In short, both competition and cooperation are indispensable in human society. No matter the whole society or groups, it is necessary to strike a balance between competition and cooperation in order to develop healthily.
Interest conflict is the core reason of various social contradictions, and also the key to solve social contradictions. In general, interest is not the only reason of social contradictions, but social issues are so complex that it is difficult for us to fully consider all kinds of factors, and "interest" is a concise and effective analytical perspective.
Here are a few common social issues related to interest conflict:
- The conflicts between morality and personal interests, which are interest conflicts between groups and individuals.
- The conflicts of moral rules among different groups, which indicate that there are interest conflicts between the different groups people belong to. Sometimes small group belongs to large group, such as family and country.
- Social group contradictions, are also interest conflicts among groups, but groups are relatively independent.
Each of these problems has their own characteristics, but usually involve interest conflicts. The following are some general solutions:
- Establish fair and reasonable social system. There should not be a large gap between the income and social resources that all people receive, and the reason for the gap should be fair and reasonable, so that people can accept the unequal distribution of interests. For example, people are more likely to accept that hard-working people have high incomes, but very dissatisfied with those who earn high incomes by corruption.
- Establish good social welfare system to meet people's common needs, enhance people's sense of security in life, so as to weaken people's pursuit of interests.
- Establish fair judicial system, this ensures the effective operation of the social system, and improves people's sense of security.
- Make people have higher-level pursuit, and do not pay too much attention to their own interests. For example, cultivating people's morality, beliefs, improve people's education level, and promote people's wisdom. If people have broad and profound wisdom, they will naturally pursue higher level ideals instead of focusing only on their own interests.
- Make people pursue the interests of the whole society, so as to make people's interests more unified. For example, advocating the ideas of Great Harmony, Dorderism, and so on.
The above methods are suitable for most interest conflict issues, so every society should strive to achieve them.
Diversity is good for the long-term development of society and groups. The present situation of human society is a good proof of this, if the group composed entirely of a certain type of people outperforms the diversified groups, then after long-term evolution and elimination, people's current differences should be much smaller, and social culture will not be so rich.
For example, in an ancient society, if people kill all the thin and weak infants, then most of their future scientists, philosophers, and artists would be killed in the cradle. Such a society can only rely on powerful force to maintain its own survival, once it encounters more powerful opponents, especially those armed with science and culture, it will soon be eliminated or assimilated.
The diversity of social activities is also good for social development. For example, video game was once considered only a childish way of entertainment, but the game industry has strongly promoted the development of computer hardware and virtual worlds, and electronic sports has also become an important part of the sports industry.
The history of human development proves that only diversified societies can flourish. The reason behind this is that freedom is the key to generate dynamic order efficiently, and only the society that allows diversity can guarantee individual freedom, or we can say that diversity is the inevitable result of free societies.
Therefore, for minority groups in society, as long as they do not undermine the basic social order, we should thank them for increasing the diversity of society. Only if we remain tolerant, can the diversity of society increase.
How to solve the contradictions between human groups? In particular, how can we resolve the contradictions between religion, ideology, class, and race?
First of all, the reason why people form groups in society is largely to win or defend their own interests, so all the solutions mentioned in Interest Conflict usually help to resolve social group contradictions. If there is no fair and reasonable social system, if it can not truly guarantee people's rights such as social welfare and freedom, then people will inevitably rely on these groups to gain the sense of security and realize personal interests, and this will lead to group contradictions. It is also meaningful to enhance people's wisdom and so on, which helps people to see problems from the perspective of the whole society, and make it easier for groups to reach compromises.
Besides, we should weaken people's traditional group consciousness of class, race, nation, religion, and so on. More specifically, the more people's lives are limited to certain groups, the stronger their sense of group identity is, and the more likely they may generate extreme emotions. On the other hand, the more dimensions of people's social activities, the more groups people belong to, then the smaller a single group's influence on people, and people will be more open and tolerant, their traditional group consciousness will be weakened, and then the contradictions between these traditional groups will also be weakened. We often say that "Birds of a feather flock together", but when people belong to many groups, this phenomenon will be weakened.
For example, in primitive society, people's lives are entirely dependent on their tribes. If a person's tribe hates another tribe, she/he would inevitably hate that tribe. But in the Internet age, if a person has a rich and multidimensional life, then she/he may meet many Japanese friends in the manga communities, and collaborate with Chinese and Indian programmers in open source software projects, and discuss football matches with friends in Latin America, and so on. And this multidimensional life will weaken her/his traditional group consciousness. In the near future, people in different languages can communicate well through translation softwares, the language barriers will be eliminated to a certain extent, and most people can live such a life.
In short, to resolve contradictions among human groups, we should try to eliminate interest conflicts among groups, and guide people to pursue multidimensional life.
How to solve problems such as class solidification and class contradictions?
First of all, future societies will become more and more equal. (Equality)
In addition, the traditional class division only involves a few dimensions of society, and if people's social activities are multidimensional, people's social identity will also come from multiple dimensions. For ordinary people, if we want to improve our social class, we may aim at some new fields. A top programmer can attract many programmers to complete open source projects; an environmentalist can organize influential environmental movements. The initiators and organizers of these social activities can become elites in specific social fields.
In the future, the social elites should be dispersed in many fields, rather than forming an interest class. Therefore, in addition to increasing the mobility between social classes, we should also try to weaken the concept of traditional social classes by increasing social diversity.
Like human individuals, human groups or organizations also have the tendency to maintain their existence. The long-term existence of organizations is good for social stability, however, there are also many drawbacks. For example, organizations tend to become rigid, and it is not good for the evolution of organizations, and easy to form interest groups.
In order to avoid the solidification of groups and organizations, and to form more dynamic organizations, we should try to avoid forming fixed organizations, instead, we should form organizations based on goals and tasks. When the tasks are over, the organization should be dissolved. The scientific research collaboration projects are typical examples.
In the future society, people's work will be diverse, and free work will gradually increase. Task-oriented organizations are more dynamic than traditional organizations, so they are more suitable for future work mode.