What is the essence of work and labor? From the perspective of dynamic order, all activities of efficient creation of dynamic order can be seen as generalized work. This means that most meaningful social activities are work, to a certain extent.
We call the usual work "traditional work" in order to separate from this generalized work. Corresponding to "traditional work" is "free work", which represents those social activities outside of traditional industries, that are freely conducted by people to create dynamic order. There is no clear boundary between these two kinds of work, for example, the development of many open source software projects can be regarded as free work, and can also be regarded as traditional work.
The most important value measure criterion of all work is the dynamic order they generate directly or indirectly.
This definition of work is very vague and broad. However, this is exactly a trend in the development of human society: The work, study, life, entertainment of human beings will gradually merge together. In the long run, the concept of "work" will gradually fade away. We only need to care about whether people's specific behavior promotes social development and creates dynamic order, or undermines social development and dynamic order.
In the future, it is difficult for us to use economic benefits to motivate people to promote their free work. But education brings intelligence, intelligence brings good work results, so education is the key to promote the progress of free work, the future education should not only focus on traditional work, but also pay attention to free work. Furthermore, the purpose of education should be to cultivate more intelligent and more multi-dimensional people, not just to train workers.
What is the ideal model of social division of labor?
In the ideal social division of labor, everyone's wisdom and ability should be fully utilized in order to create dynamic order, so that people who do not engage in traditional work should do free work.
With the continuous improvement of social productivity, it is very inefficient to let most people engage in traditional work. As long as a minority of people engage in traditional work, it can meet the demands of the whole society. In the future, the application of technologies such as AI and human intelligence enhancement will enhance this trend. It is possible that a decentralized AI can complete all the core work of an industry. Even considering the standby systems, several AI systems are sufficient. In this case, the human workers needed by an industry may be just a few IT teams. Therefore, with the reduction of traditional jobs, and the society becomes more free and open, most people should engage in free work in the future.
It is futile to force society to maintain the old division of labor model that focuses on traditional work. In the future, if people are forced to engage in traditional work, they may hand over their work to their own AI assistants, or just mechanically follow the instructions of AI assistants, and lose their free will. Therefore, in the future people should only do the work that they are really interested in. Those work that nobody is interested in, or the work that human beings can't do well, should be done by AI.
For scarce jobs, priority should be given to more capable people. In the future, when people's intelligence is greatly enhanced, many people may have the ability to do a scarce job, then the job can be assigned in turn, randomly, and so on, or combine multiple methods.
Social work usually needs social resources, then how should social resources be allocated to traditional work and free work?
The key point is that people who work better should have more social resources, whether they are doing traditional work or free work. Many free work can't get income like traditional work, so in addition to basic social welfare, the society should also have a reasonable evaluation and reward mechanism for free work.
In addition, in a long period of time, traditional work will generate more wealth than free work, and people who get traditional jobs will have more income and pay more tax. This is because the current major social resources are controlled and managed by traditional work, and it does not mean that traditional work is more valuable than free work. Wealth can often reflect the value of people's work indirectly, but dynamic order is the only criterion of work value.
For example, free work such as participating in open source software projects, creating artistic work may not bring direct wealth, but these work all increase the dynamic order of society. Conversely, purely speculative trading, and jobs in industries such as tobacco and gambling may all gain a lot of wealth, but often reduce the overall dynamic order of the society.
In general, the ideal model of social division of labor is: A small part of people engage in traditional work, and most people engage in free work. All people's work should be voluntary, and should truly create dynamic order. The allocation of social resources and income should be based on the dynamic order generated by people's work, rather than material wealth.
How to solve the unemployment problem?
Once the society accepts the social division of labor model mentioned before, the concept of "unemployment" should be gradually abandoned. People do not necessarily rely on traditional work to integrate into the society, what people need is only economic income. As long as there is good social welfare, ensuring that people have social resources to do free work, and give people good education, then we can guide jobless people to do free work.
Only those who are completely reluctant to integrate into society, and totally unwilling to engage in normal social activities, are truly unemployed, but this is beyond the scope of "work" or "employment". Even if there are good jobs for such people, they can't do well. Therefore, as long as we solve problems such as welfare and education, the unemployment problem can be solved.
If there is such a job: to help God (or aliens) manage human society for a period of time, can control everything, but without any rewards, cannot seek any private interest, no one will ever know, then would anyone be willing to do this job? There is no doubt that a lot of people will be willing to do it. Why are people willing to do this job without paying? Because changing the world is a precious power, human nature contains the desire for this power. And work, more or less, includes the power to change the world.
Therefore, when people get jobs, they gain some power to change the world. While power is valuable, so work itself is also valuable. The reason why we believe that most of the ordinary work has nothing to do with power, is because the human ability to change the world is not big enough. However, in the future, with the improvement of productivity, the application of AI and other technologies, and the work process becomes more and more comfortable, people will more recognize that "work is power".
The value of work itself as power, makes the work itself can be considered work reward, especially for scarce work. Under the premise of good social welfare, the value of scarce work itself can be regarded as the main work reward. This can also be used as one of the reasons for levying income tax on scarce jobs.
The work of AI will be mainly allocated by human beings, and the work results are also mainly enjoyed by humans. Then, are human beings enslave AI?
First of all, on the premise that we don't add desires and motivations to AI, if we do not operate them, they will not produce any thinking and action, let alone have the freedom of thinking and action.
Besides, for intelligent creatures, the information of natural environment is very limited, and human society itself is the largest source of information in the solar system. Valuable and meaningful information is precious for intelligent creatures, because information brings intelligence. So if human beings don't give them information, they can only get very little information, and can't get real thinking freedom, so human's work actually gives freedom to AI.
And work is power, the distribution of work between human and AI is the distribution of power among intelligent creatures. Giving work to AI is equivalent to giving them the power to change the world. In addition, work will not bring physical or psychological pain to AI. Therefore, work will bring pure freedom and power to AI.
Conversely, limiting the work scope of AI is equivalent to giving human beings more freedom and power, and it may also be helpful to the security of human beings. Therefore, we don't have to hand over most of work to AI.